Remote monitoring of closed water systems

October 18, 2021 Blog Posts Comments Off on Remote monitoring of closed water systems

Remote monitoring of closed water systems

ph Water & Air Technologies can provide an innovative approach to monitoring closed water systems. Using smart alternatives to traditional instrumentation we can offer a complete water quality monitoring and control system which can be used to further enhance traditional monitoring methods.


  • Pre-commission cleaning
  • Temporary installation – Either post PCC Exercise or as part of an investigation to perform system health checks.
  • Permanent installation for continuous system health checks.

The Problem

The treatment of water in modern closed heating and cooling systems is essential for the avoidance of microbiological fouling (biofouling), corrosion and scale. Failure to do so can result in energy wastage, poor system performance, and the need for early replacement of plant and components. The consequences of inappropriate or non-existent water treatment can sometimes be disastrous © BSRIA BG 50/2013. Financial losses can run into 100s of thousands of pounds in both downtime and repairs. 

The advice from BSRIA is that maintenance should involve Chemistry & Bacteriological sampling at a maximum interval of 3 months. Samples should be taken at a sufficient number at representative locations to provide an overall view of the system condition and to allow for assessment of the significance of the results. The BS8552 Sampling and monitoring of water from building services closed systems offers advice on frequency of sampling and locations.

Inhibitor reserves need to be maintained and bacteriological conditions controlled in order to maximise protection against future scaling/corrosion.

Benefits of Remote Monitoring

By continuously analysing key water parameters we can identify potential conditions that lead to corrosion and subsequent system failure well in advance. By using water monitoring technology we can ensure that those responsible for maintaining a system can identify a problem and remediate before it becomes more serious & significantly reduce maintenance costs.

Remote monitoring will allow automatic alarms to flag up changes in condition as they occur rather than be identified when the next sampling is carried out which is often far too late and damage has already occurred.

For designers and property owners, it is essential to closely monitor water quality within a closed system throughout the life of the building to ensures design life is achieved, operating efficiencies are maintained and costly downtime is avoided.

Measure and record:

  • Pressure
  • Flow
  • pH
  • Temperature
  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • Conductivity
  • Turbidity
  • Biolfouling

By monitoring key parameters you can quickly identify:

  • Leaks / Water Loss
  • Inhibitor depletion
  • Oxygen ingress (In oxygenated waters, the uniform corrosion rate will generally increase)
  • Poor circulation (Stagnation will allow the sedimentation of suspended solids and promote the formation of biofilms, increasing the risk of microbial influenced corrosion)
  • Operating temperatures that encourage the growth of bacteria.
  • pH (pH drift)

Delivery to start up in minutes

The ATI SiteBox (pictured) is quick to install, with delivery to start up in minutes, and typically generates live data within 30 minutes, dramatically reducing the overall cost of the instrumentation package.

It has a small footprint and can easily be moved to monitor other areas of concern and its rugged nature makes it suitable for use in a maintenance environment or on construction sites.

Power Options

Power consumption requirements of traditional water quality monitors prevent their use in locations where AC power is not available. The low power design of the SiteBox system allows these monitors to operate on 12-24 VDC power, as well as battery power, without sacrificing reliability. To further improve power consumption, the system allows users to operate in either continuous or cycle modes. 

Remote Data Collection & Web Dashboard

By incorporating the Cello 4S remote telemetry outstation we are able to monitor multiple site parameters, record and transmit over 2G (SMS/GPRS), 3G, NB-IoT and LTE Cat M1 networks. The logged data is accessible via a highly stable and configurable web based platform which is fully compatible with all modern web browsers.  

The Dashboard provides links to all current alarms and site warnings. Site Alarms can automatically forwarded to one or more mobile devices or email addresses based on criteria as defined by the administrator.

Recipients of an alarm on a mobile device may request further site information by sending an SMS message to the server. Site data may be manually or automatically exported into other formats, including CSV, for further manipulation in spreadsheet packages.



© BG29 2021 – Pre-Commission Cleaning of Pipework Systems

Specialist corrosion monitoring equipment is available to measure and record specific corrosion influencing  parameters. As a permanent feature of the system, the data recorded can give the maintenance team an early warning of conditions likely to promote internal corrosion. This technology allows remote diagnostics so that site visits are minimised.

Typical parameters that can be measured and recorded at pre-set time intervals include.

  • Dissolved oxygen
  • Conductivity (as an indicator of cleaner or inhibitor concentration).
  • pH
  • Water make-up volumes,
  • System pressures,
  • Flow rates
  • Metallica corrosion rates.

If installed prior to the initial system fill corrosion monitoring equipment can be used by the installing contractor and cleaning specialists to monitor the various filling and cleaning stages. The recorded results can be used to demonstrate that the cleaning process was carried out correctly and that the water quality was properly maintained in the period leading to practical completion.

© BSRIA BG 50/2013 Water treatment for closed heating and cooling systems

The system designer should also consider the installation of permanent monitoring equipment such as corrosion coupon racks and on-line sensors. It is preferable to design and install monitoring equipment at the same time as pipework rather when the system is in operation. This will also provide a full history of the corrosion environment.

Corrosion in closed heating and cooling systems is governed primarily by the concentration of dissolved oxygen, the presence of microorganisms and how these factors are mediated by the use of water treatment, i.e. corrosion inhibitors and biocides. Periodic water analysis can measure the concentration of inhibitors and pick up signs of metal corrosion. LPR probes and corrosion coupons can give an accurate assessment of corrosion rates. However, to understand how the whole system is performing and pre-empt damage due to loss of control, continuous monitoring can be useful.


Imagery of the ATI SiteBox, just one of the remote monitoring solutions that ph Water & Air Technologies Ltd can offer.

For more information regarding remote monitoring solutions please  contact a member of our sales team 01252 543668



Have the Covid-19 lock-downs inadvertently created water safety concerns that has the potential to put users of a hotels water systems at significant risk?

It is a widely accepted “fact” that water stagnation in buildings leads to Legionella growth. This has been amplified considerably following the COVID-19 building shutdowns worldwide, with calls for some intensive actions to be undertaken by building managers (flushing protocols) being translated to warnings of potentially severe health risks.

Optimizing hydraulic design and thus maintaining target controls within building networks is clearly beneficial to controlling microbial water quality.

A recent study carried out by a UKAS accredited laboratory looked at a series of hotels for whom sampling data was available before and after lockdown. Some of the hotels operated a temperature control regime and some use chlorine dioxide as an alternative to temperature.

The results confirmed a marked increase in the numbers of samples testing positive for Legionella before and after lockdown, even in systems where Legionella colonisation was not easily detectable before March 2020. For some systems two-thirds of samples taken were positive for Legionella in post-lockdown sampling.

The data shows that even in premises considered under control prior to the pandemic, Legionella become much more commonly detected bacteria in samples taken post-lockdown. Data also suggests that chlorine dioxide treated systems have much lower levels of Legionella than systems treated with temperature.

Chlorine dioxide is an oxidising biocide/disinfectant that when used correctly, has been shown to be effective at controlling both legionella and biofilm growth in hot and cold water systems. In the appropriate application, it may be used to aid legionella control where maintaining a conventional temperature regime is difficult or where the removal of all dead legs and little used outlets is impractical.

The evidence suggests that the protective effect of using an appropriate biocide, provides greater inhibition of Legionella growth in these systems, thus reducing risk in these circumstances. It is also clear that sites with historic positive results show significant increases in positive results following lockdown.

Table 1: Proportion of samples testing positive for Legionella before and after lockdown

Hotel Code ClO2 dosed? % Positive before lockdown (actual number) % Positive after lockdown (actual number)
D07401​ No​ 14.63 (41)​ 66.67 (15)​
G07401​ No​ 9.09 (22)​ 53.33 (15)​
M05610​ No​ 0 (31)​ 21.85 (119)​
M05609​ No​ 0 (39)​ 11.25 (160)​
P03201​ No​ 0 (38)​ 9.52 (42)​
S22601​ No​ 0 (24)​ 5.56 (18)​
W08801​ No​ 0 (32)​ 0 (37)​
M05608​ No​ 0 (15)​ 0 (12)​
S05302​ Yes​ 11.63 (43)​ 64.71 (51)​
S20201​ Yes​ 0 (58)​ 2.5 (80)​
A12501​ Yes​ 0 (44)​ 0 (58)​
T058​ Yes​ 0 (41)​ 0 (51)​
S00901​ Yes​ 0 (40)​ 0 (40)​
N018​ Yes​ 0 (23)​ 0 (23)​






Some people are more vulnerable than others to COVID-19. Generally, these infections can cause more severe symptoms in people with weakened immune systems, older people, and those with long-term conditions like diabetes, cancer and chronic lung disease – not unlike the susceptible groups for Legionnaires’ disease.Legionnaires’ disease is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella species. The illness usually starts with flu-like symptoms including fever, tiredness, headache, and muscle pains. This is followed by a dry cough and breathing difficulties which may progress to a severe pneumonia. The disease is spread through the air from a water source. People become infected when they breathe in aerosols (tiny droplets of water) which have been contaminated with Legionella bacteria.

Many of the environmental factors that encourage Legionella growth also allow for growth of other are germs that grow well in drinking water distribution systems, such as Pseudomonas and nontuberculous mycobacteria.

There are no vaccines that can prevent Legionnaires’ disease. Instead, the key to preventing Legionnaires’ disease is to make sure that building owners and managers maintain building water systems in order to reduce the risk of Legionella growth and spread.

Any water system that has the right environmental conditions could potentially be a source for legionella bacteria growth.

The Health and Safety at Work Act still applies even in the current situation and as such an employer or those in control of premises must continue to manage any risk arising from their activity and this includes legionella control.


Recommissioning your water systems

It is essential that when buildings reopen following the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions, that any water system is not simply put straight back into use.   During the period of shutdown, it would be sensible to formulate a recommissioning plan for each water system to allow safe start-up and assurance to users that it is safe. 

Any plan for recommissioning buildings must consider the safety of the operatives carrying out the work.  It is foreseeable that the hazard present within water systems in this situation would be greater than normally expected.  Reasonably practicable measures such as limiting aerosol, minimising exposure and use of RPE should be considered.

Evaporative cooling systems should already have robust start-up and shut-down procedures in place and the expectation is that these will be followed.

The minimum expectation for small, simple hot and cold-water systems would be flushing through with fresh mains water.  Larger buildings, those with tanks, showers, calorifiers and more complex pipework the expectation is likely to be for more extensive flushing followed by cleaning and disinfection.

During flushing all valves should be operated in the fully open position so that any particulate matter can be flushed through. Of particular importance are float-operated or other restrictive valves which need to be manually opened to ensure clearing of particulates and prevent fouling of the valves. Where a clearing velocity cannot be achieved, consideration should be given to removal of valves to enable an effective flush.

Where cleaning and disinfection is carried out, it is very important to monitor the decrease in disinfectant level over the course of the contact time.  Loss of more than 40% disinfectant concentration could indicate influence of biofilm.  See BSI PD855468 for more guidance.

Where buildings have been empty for some time and during warm weather, it is likely that some increase in bacteria levels and biofilm will occur.  These water systems may require more than a simple disinfection at 50ppm of chlorine for an hour to be successful.  Be prepared for the need to repeat some disinfections to achieve success.

In all cases where systems are being recommissioned it is sensible to have evidence to prove/reassure that the recommissioning process has been effective.  Sampling to BS7592 should be considered for recommissioning plans to validate the effectiveness of the process.  As per HSG274 part 2, samples should be taken 2-7 days following recommissioning and not on the day of disinfection.  Follow up samples may need to be considered as part of the recommissioning plan.


A typical recommissioning plan for a domestic water system

  1. Review your Legionella risk assessment and update where necessary.
  2. Carry out a system disinfection flushing through to all outlets to achieve 50 ppm free chlorine or equivalent biocide for at least an hour checking that this level is achieved at the furthest outlets, top up when required.
  3. Flush out and refill the system to achieve maximum normal operating target levels of disinfection (equivalent to at least 0.2 ppm free chlorine).
  4. Refill and reheat the calorifier to 60 °C. and when the calorifier/ storage water has been heated to 60 °C throughout, open the valves and flush through all outlets taking care to avoid any scalding risk.
  5. Monitor temperatures and biocide levels (where applicable), adjust where necessary, for at least 48 hours
  6. Collect Legionella samples. A site-specific sampling plan should be devised and should include stored (cold water storage tanks, calorifiers), sentinel and representative hot & cold-water locations to confirm the efficacy of the disinfection.  Locations should also include areas where there is doubt about the efficacy of the control regime or it is known that recommended temperatures, disinfectant concentrations, or other precautions are not being consistently achieved throughout the system.
  7. Continue to monitor systems and flush systems until laboratory results are obtained. If legionella results are unsatisfactory then you may need to repeat the process sometimes using an alternative product.
  8. Once satisfied that the hot and cold-water systems are under control then reopen the building.
  9. Ensure you keep all documentation for inspection: including the review and update of risk assessments (these can be annotated by hand) including monitoring data etc., with evidence of who carried out the monitoring, add time date and signature.
  10. Continue to maintain and manage your water system to prevent the risk of legionella and comply with the HSE’s ACoP L8 & HSG274 guidelines.

The duty holder should consider well in advance the time it will take to undertake and complete any recommissioning plan. Be mindful that legionella results will take around 14 days and that the process may need to be repeated. A building should remain closed until you are confident that your control measures have been effective.


Testing for Legionella

The HSE state within the HSG274 pt2 legionella testing “should be carried out where there is doubt about the efficacy of the control regime or it is known that recommended temperatures, disinfectant concentrations or other precautions are not being consistently achieved throughout the system.”

In both hot and cold-water systems, samples should be taken:

  • If considered necessary by the risk assessment;
  • from areas where the target control parameters are not met (i.e., where disinfectant levels are low or where temperatures are below 50°C (55°C in healthcare premises) for HWS or exceed 20°C for cold water systems);
  • from areas subject to low usage, stagnation, excess storage capacity, dead legs, excessive heat loss, cross-flow from water system or other anomalies.

In cold water systems, samples should also be taken as required:

  • from the point of entry (or nearest outlet) if the water is supplied from a private water supply or where the temperature of the incoming mains supply is above 20°C from the cold water storage tank or tanks;
  • from the furthest and nearest outlet on each branch of the system (far and near sentinel outlets).

In hot water systems, samples should be taken as required:

  • from the calorifier hot water outlet and from the base of the calorifier, if it is safe to do so, as some systems are under considerable pressure;
  • from the furthest and nearest outlet on each branch of a single pipe system (far and near sentinel outlets);
  • from the furthest and nearest outlet on each loop of a circulating system (far and near sentinel outlets).


Further information is available in the L8 Approved Code of Practice and the associated technical guidance:


Legionella Sampling Data Courtesy of Accepta Ltd

Safety solutions provided at one of Europe’s most prestigious stations by ph Water Technologies.

May 28, 2021 Blog Posts Comments Off on Safety solutions provided at one of Europe’s most prestigious stations by ph Water Technologies.

How the installation of ground level manway entry systems reduced the H&S risk associated with water storage tank maintenance & inspections at one of Britains most famous railway stations & the terminus for the Eurostar services through the Channel Tunnel.

The HSE’s emphasis on preventing death, injury and ill-health in the UK workplace has been paramount in saving lives and reducing accidents. The risks surrounding working inside confined spaces such as water storage tanks are significant and can be an unknowing killer. In January 2013 the HSE ran a campaign on the dangers of working at height which featured some excellent advice on how to avoid them. Their report highlighted the real dangers of working at height, which along with confined spaces is an issue when accessing large tanks with top access manways.

The law regarding confined spaces and working at height is clear.

  • The Confined Spaces Regulation 1997 – Other legislation may apply, depending on where the confined space is situated or on the task being carried out
  • The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
  • The Personal Protection Equipment Regulations 2002 and Personal Protective Equipment (Health and Safety Regulations 1992)

The dangers of confined spaces and working at height are numerous

  • Harmful gas, fumes or vapours
  • Corrosion
  • Fire and explosions
  • Dust,
  • Slip trips and falls
  • falling from height

In recent years the benefits of ground-level access manways have become notable as the HSE has brought prosecutions against companies that failed to provide adequate health and safety training for employees working in enclosed spaces. These prosecutions bring sharply into focus the drawbacks of ‘top-down’ tank access.

Installation of ground level manway entry systems

As the incumbent Water Treatment specialist at one of Europe’s busiest and most prestigious stations, Ph Water Technologies were contracted to install “ground level manway entry systems” to allow safe ingress & egress to 6 large cold water storage tanks.

  1. CWST 1a – 42000 litres
  2. CWST 1b – 42000 litres
  3. CWST 2a – 30,000 litres
  4. CWST 2b – 30,000 litres
  5. CWST 3a – 9000 litres
  6. CWST 3b – 18000 litres

By installing ground-level access manways it greatly reduces the H&S risk and provides the ability for operators and maintenance staff inspect and undertake planned maintain, as well ensuring ease of access for emergency staff to treat and evacuate individuals from a tank, at ground level should it ever be required.

The low-level manway maximises time and efficiency by reducing the use of harnesses and access steps and minimises any further injuries and falls if operations personnel are overcome by fumes within a tank.  Manway also allows for stretcher access and extraction.

Site specific RAMS, were prepared which included a confined space emergency escape plan and testing the atmosphere inside tank by suspending a calibrated gas monitor into the tanks.  Each integrated access hatch was to be bolted, flanged and completely removable to facilitate safe access.

As one of the tanks had been previously been re-lined, careful abrasion, cutting and removal of flexible resin/ polyurethane coating was necessary to ensure that the old lining was not compromised.

In order not to invalidate the 10 year warranty the internal surfaces were manually prepared to remove the existing coatings and to provide a surface profile of 0.75mm to accept the new coating.  All joints were stripe coated with a base coat (Grey) of DWPU to build up the thickness in these critical areas before applying to all internal surfaces at a nominal thickness of 400 micron.

The above was repeated with a top coat (blue) of DWPU applied to all internal surfaces.  When the coating had cured, each tank was disinfected to PD855468:2015 before being re-instated to normal operation.

The whole project duration was estimated at 20 days and due to the bypass configuration all works were carried out during normal working hours without any interruption to the stations domestic water services.

Ph Water Technologies can also custom fabricate hatches to any required size for steel sectional Braithwaite tanks


Water Tank Relining by ph Water Technologies – A Cost Effective Solutions For Water Storage Tanks.

May 25, 2021 Blog Posts no comments

ph Water & Air Technologies were recently contacted by a prestigious London Hotel to undertake the complete replacement of four very large galvanized steel cold water storage, which had suffered failure of the internal coating and led to widespread osmotic blistering and corrosion

Urgent action was required as the Legionella Risk Assessment had identified that the tanks posed a significant risk to system users due to heavy corrosion, a nutrient for Legionella.

Our original brief was to cut out and remove the 4 large tanks located within the 10th & 25th floor plantrooms and replace with new GRP sectional tanks.

During our survey ph Water Technologies identified that the structural integrity of the old tanks were found to be sound and ideal for the application of a polyurethane lining system. At the following meeting we presented this alternative solution to the hotel management team highlighting some of the benefits.

  • Significant financial savings.
  • Minimal disruption to the operation of the hotel.
  • No disruption to the hotels water services.
  • Suitability for storing wholesome water.
  • 10 year guarantee

The product recommended was a SOLVENT FREE DRINKING WATER POLYURETHANE (DWPU), which offers numerous economic, technical and environmental features and benefits, some of which are highlighted below:

  • WRAS Approved
  • Complete Solvent Free Technology
  • High degree of flexibility @ > 35%, capable of accommodating structural movement compared with resin / epoxy / bitumastic coatings of <1.0%
  • Superb adhesion to steel, concrete, GRP and many other substrates.
  • High levels of impact and chemical resistance.
  • Long life performance with minimal maintenance
  • Easy clean, ceramic tile-like finish
  • Excellent track record for applications such as drinking water tanks, cooling towers, reservoirs etc.

As each tank was drained the extent of the osmotic blistering of the existing coating became evident.  The previous specialist had decided to paint the blue epoxy coating directly onto a bituminous coating.

The internal surfaces were manually prepared to remove the existing coatings and to provide a surface profile of 0.75mm to accept the new coating.  All joints were stripe coated with a base coat (Grey) of DWPU to build up the thickness in these critical areas before applying to all internal surfaces at a nominal thickness of 400 micron.

The above was repeated with a top coat (blue) of DWPU applied to all internal surfaces.  When the coating had cured, each tank was disinfected to PD855468:2015 before being re-instated to normal operation.

The ball valves were also replaced with Aylesbury Keraflo KB type fully variable delayed action float valves, suitable for tanks with or without raised valve chambers.

All tanks were then insulated using BCO MMMF insulation and other remedial works completed to ensure each tank complies with the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999.

At handover, a full photographic completion report along with a 10-year guarantee was provided to a very pleased customer.

#competentcontractor #tankrelining #water treatment #waterhygiene #legionellacontrol

Ultraviolet Disinfection (UV) & Filtration Plant Installed at at one of Europe’s most prestigious stations by ph Water & Air Technologies

April 1, 2020 Blog Posts Comments Off on Ultraviolet Disinfection (UV) & Filtration Plant Installed at at one of Europe’s most prestigious stations by ph Water & Air Technologies

Ultraviolet Disinfection & Filtration plant installed at one of the most famous railway stations in England & now the terminus for the Eurostar services through the Channel Tunnel.

ph Water & Air Technologies were contracted to undertake the replacement of the UV disinfection filter at St Pancras International Station. The scope of works included the installation of a pre filter and associated valves which  required significant pipework modification in order to incorporate the new layout using press-fit copper and flanged fittings.

St. Pancras station opened in 1868 and is one of the wonders of Victorian engineering. Along with the former Midland Grand Hotel, it is a masterpiece of Victorian Gothic architecture and one of the most elegant stations in the World. St Pancras Station features a range of shops from recognised brands and retailers and with the mains water supply to the site being isolated for the duration of the works, careful planning and coordination was required in order not to disrupt the services at one of London’s most prestigious and busiest transport hubs.

Equipment installed:

Ultra Violet Disinfection Plant with UV Intensity Monitor & 5 x Cartridge pre filter.

N.B. Pre-filters are necessary in order to remove contaminants such as dirt & debris from the water which without would stop the UV light from reaching bacteria and limit its effectiveness.

What is UV disinfection system and how does it work?

UV treatment is an extremely rapid physical process that causes a molecular rearrangement of the genetic material, known as DNA, of the microorganism, which renders it inactive and incapable of causing infection.

How does a UV disinfection system work:

UV disinfection technology uses 253.7 nanometer ultraviolet (UV) light to kill microorganisms. It is effective in destroying the nucleic acids in these organisms so that their DNA is disrupted, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions or cause infections.

No bacteria, viruses, moulds or their spores can survive when exposed to the correct dose of UV light.

Where can it be used:

It can be used in many different applications ranging from the purification of drinking water in homes to disinfecting the water supply within buildings and even district water supplies. UV treatment is recognised as the safer, environmentally-friendly and more cost-effective way to disinfect water for industrial applications.


  1. Lower running cost
  2. Simple and failsafe operation:
  3. Compact
  4. Environmentally friendly
  5. Safe
  6. Energy efficient

For more information about our range of products or packaged engineering services; please contact our office on 01252 543668 or email